Established in about 1986, the Oppressed of the Earth Organization (OEO, a.k.a.Munazzamat al-Mustadafin fi’l-Ard) was a Lebanese Islamist group. Even at its height, it was a relatively minor entity consisting of just under 100 members. It often served as a cover for Hezbollah’s militant activities and sometimes held Western hostages. In December 1986 it claimed responsibility for kidnapping two U.S. citizens and four French television crewmen. OEO has been inactive since 1988.