Cultural Legacy of the Communist Party USA
By John Earl Haynes
February 21, 2005

 

In dealing with deniers of the horrors of Stalinism, frequently
represented on this list, as with the deniers of the horrors of Nazism,
there are two schools of thought: to ignore their claims or to confront
them. I’ve shifted my preference from time to time depending on the
circumstance.

As for the claim that accounts of Communist atrocities are
disinformation and lies let me specify one of particular relevance to
the history of the CPUSA (which took a direct role in covering it up and
does so to this day).

Stalin’s political police murdered not less than five hundred and
probably well in excess of one thousand North American Finns, chiefly
Finnish-Americans but a good number of Finnish-Canadians as well. Most

had been members of the CPUSA or the CPC or one of its affiliates such
as the Finnish Workers Federation or the Finnish Organization of Canada.
These North American Red Finns had been drawn to the Soviet Union in the
early 1930s in a Soviet-backed drive to turn the Soviet republic of
Karelia into a "Red Finland" as an alternative to the "White"
anti-Communist Republic of Finland next door.

Unfortunately, when the Great Terror came those persons with foreign
ties were particularly targeted. When aficionados of Esperanto and
philatelists (foreign stamps you know) were targeted for arrest and the
Gulag by Stalin’s police, the North American Finnish immigrants to
Karelia could hardly be ignored.

Among the victims were two well-known members of the American Communist
Party: Matti Tenhunen and Oscar Corgan. Tenhunen had led the Soviet
Karelian Technical Aid Committee that had arranged the emigration of
many from North America to Karelia and then joined the exodus himself.
For a time he served as head of the Karelian Council of People’s
Comissariats Labor Department and became editor of the Finnish-language
Punainen Karjala_ [Red Karelia]. He was arrested in 1937. In 1938 the
Communist International privately informed Canadian and American
Communists that the Soviet Karelian Technical Aid Committee had been
part of an anti-Soviet conspiracy out to "flood Soviet Karelia with all
sorts of undesirable bourgeois- nationalist, fascist and Trotskyist
agents; in short, under cover of a working class movement, these people
became the advance agents of fascism aiming at the destruction of
socialist economy in Soviet Karelia and its separation from the USSR."
The Comintern stated, "At his trial for diversionist activities . . .
[Matti Tenhunen] was fully exposed as an agent of the Finnish police and
sentenced to a term of imprisonment by the Soviet Courts." Actually, the
KGB murdered Tenhunen on December 28, 1937, shortly after his arrest,
and the charges against him were totally false.

Oscar Corgan became head of the Soviet Karelian Technical Aid Committee
in the United States after Tenhunen’s departure for Karelia, and then he
too emigrated along with his wife and three American-born children.
Corgan, who had once managed the CPUSA’s _Työmies_ newspaper in
Superior, Wisconsin, went to work for a Finnish-language Karelian
publishing house. He was arrested on November 4, 1937, and his family
was later told that he had received a fifteen-year prison sentence. He
never returned from the labor camps, however. In 1956, after
Khrushchev’s de-Stalinization campaign began, the family received a
death certificate showing that Corgan had died of "stomach cancer" in
1940. In 1991, under the Gorbachev reforms, they received a corrected
certificate showing that he had been executed two months after his arrest.

In 1997 a Russian organization dedicated to exposing Stalin- era crimes,
Memorial, located a KGB burial site near Sandarmokh, one of four it has
found in Karelia. The site contains more than nine thousand bodies in
approximately three hundred separate burial trenches. The position of
the skeletons and other remains suggested that the prisoners had been
stripped to their underwear, lined up next to a trench with hands and
feet tied, and shot in the back of the head with a pistol. Documents in
a regional KGB archive identify about four thousand of the victims as
Gulag prison laborers used to build the Belomar canal connecting the
Baltic to the White Sea, one thousand as prisoners from the Gulag camp
at Solovetskiye, and about three thousand as victims of the Karelian
purge. More than six thousand of the dead are listed by name.

Among the victims named are 141 Finnish Americans and 127 Finnish
Canadians. They include the two chief organizers of the emigration,
Oscar Corgan and Matti Tenhunen. But the list also includes ordinary
American workers such as Eino Bjorn, born in Minnesota and shot on
February 10, 1938, at age twenty- six; Walter Maki, another Minnesota
native who was shot on May 15, 1938; John Siren, born in Duluth,
Minnesota, shot on February 11, 1938; Mathew Kaartinen, born in
Ironwood, Michigan, and shot by the KGB on December 28, 1937; Andrew
Hannula, born in the state of Washington and shot on December 28, 1937;
and Enoch Nelson, born in San Francisco and shot on March 5, 1938.
Fourteen of the dead were native-born Americans. The rest were
immigrants to the United States early in the twentieth century who had
then joined the Communist-sponsored emigration to Karelia in the early
1930s. It is unknown how many of the latter were naturalized American
citizens. By occupation, the largest group among those murdered by the
KGB was loggers, followed by truck drivers and mechanics, then a variety
of skilled tradesmen, some factory workers, a few professionals, several
actors and musicians, and one hairdresser. Most of the executed were
adult males but the list of the dead includes one husband and wife
(Niilo and Elvira Filpus of Detroit, Michigan) executed together on
January 21, 1938.

Helen Hill, born in Minnesota in 1917, is also listed. Her parents took
her to Karelia in 1932 when she was a teenager. She was working as a
dispatcher at a lumber camp when she was arrested. A KGB executioner put
a pistol to the back of her head and blew her brains out on April 22,
1938, before she was twenty- three years old. According to the KGB her
offense was that she "maintained contacts with relatives in the U.S.
Collected information in favor of Finland’s intelligence service.
Praised life in capitalist countries. Spoke of her intentions to cross
the border creating a spirit of emigration in the workers."

Below is a list of the names, biographical data, and dates of execution
of 141 Finnish Americans executed and buried in a secret KGB mass grave
at Sandarmokh in the Karelian Republic of the Russian Federation.
Fourteen victims were American citizens by birth. It is unknown how many
of the others, who immigrated to the United States early in the
twentieth century, were naturalized citizens at the time of their move
from the United States to the Soviet Union in the early 1930s.

I have no doubt that the ideologically blind and strong-stomached
admirers of communism can read this list with a disdain and contempt or
find some verbal formulation to justify averting their eyes. I ask
others, however, to read the list and consider its meaning.

Aaltio, Toimi Kallevich born 1913, Red Granite, Wisconsin; emigrated
from the USA in 1931; driver, Vilga machine station; executed 11
February 1938.

Bjorklund, Adolf Leanderovich born 1878, Finland; emigrated from
Wisconsin in 1932; logger; executed 22 April 1938.

Bjorn, Eino Antonovich born 1912, Angora, Minnesota; emigrated from the
USA in 1932; driver, mechanic, Vilga machine station; executed 10
February 1938.

Corgan, Oskar Fredrik Karlovitsh born 1887, Sweden; emigrated from the
USA in 1934; book shop director; executed 9 January 1938.

Ekholm, Arvid Oskarovich born 1908, Finland; emigrated from Baltimore,
Maryland, in 1931; driver; executed 21 January 1938.

Elo, Johan Gustavovich born 1889, Finland; emigrated from Quincy,
Massachusetts, in 1931; blacksmith; executed 21 January 1938.

Erkkilä, Eino Fridrihovich born 1908, Finland; emigrated from Detroit,
Michigan, in 1932; blacksmith; executed 3 April 1938.

Ernest, Kalle Oskarovich born 1895, Finland; emigrated from Sebeka,
 Minnesota, in 1931; logger; executed 22 April 1938.

Eskola, Samuel Ivanovich (Juho) born 1882, Finland; emigrated from
Massachusetts in 1931; driver; executed 28 December 1937.

Eskolin, August Einar Augustovich born 1894, Finland; emigrated from
Brooklyn, New York, in 1931; motor operator; executed 28 April 1938.

Filpus, Elvira Karlovna born 1888, Finland; emigrated from Detroit,
Michigan, in 1933; housewife; executed 21 January 1938.

Filpus, Niilo Ollivich born 1880, Finland; emigrated from Detroit,
Michigan, in 1933; metal worker at Lososina car depot; executed 21
January 1938.

Finberg, Väinö Karlovich born 1892, Finland; emigrated from Superior,
Wisconsin, in 1931; journalist; executed 10 February 1938.

Fors, Antti Matvejevich (Matti) born 1878, Finland; emigrated from the
USA in the late 1920s; carpenter; executed 10 February 1938.

Goldberg, Juho Ivanovich (Juho) born 1891, Finland; emigrated from
Astoria, Oregon, in 1931; carpenter; executed 8 May 1938.

Grandel (Ruohisto), Toivo Viktorovich born 1898, Finland; emigrated from
Detroit, Michigan, in 1933; metal worker; executed 9 January 1938.

Hakkarainen, August Olavich (Olavi) born 1901, Finland; emigrated from
the USA in 1932; carpenter; executed 28 December 1937.

Halonen, Vaino Fridanovich (Fritjof) Oskarovich born 1891, Finland;
emigrated from the USA in 1924; metal worker, timber floating site in
Karelia; executed 9 January 1938.

Halme, Iivari Iisakovich born 1885, Finland; emigrated from Newberry,
Michigan, in 1932; logger; executed 20 January 1938.

Hannula, Andrew Osvaldovich born 1913, Washington State; emigrated from
the USA in 1932; electrician, Petrozavodsk power plant; executed 28
December 1937.

Hannula, Nikolai Matvejevich (Matti) born 1902, Finland; emigrated from
Angora, Minnesota, in 1931; mechanic at sawmill; executed 10 February
1938.

Heikanen, Jaakko Matveevich (Matti) born 1895, Finland; emigrated from
the USA in 1932; tractor driver; executed 20 January 1938.

Heikkila, Artur Matveevich (Matti) born 1892, Finland; emigrated from
the USA in 1932; metal worker, Kolodozero logging center; executed 8 May
1938.

Heikkinen, Vaino Erikovich born 1908, Finland; emigrated from Phelps,
Wisconsin, in 1931; logger; executed 21 January 1938.

Heino, Frank (Frans Luther) Ivanovich (Juho) born 1887, Finland;
emigrated from Menagha, Minnesota; paper mill worker; executed 22 April
1938.

Helander, Yrjo Niilo Andreevich (Antti) born 1899, Finland; emigrated
from the USA in 1932; naturalized American citizen; construction
mechanic; executed 20 January 1938.

Helin, Evert Stepanovich (Teppo) born 1888, Finland; emigrated from
Chicago, Illinois, in 1932; carpenter; executed 28 December 1938.

Heimonen, Edvard Juho Abelevich born 1887, Finland; emigrated from the
USA in 1931; dock laborer; executed 20 January 1938.

Hendriksson, Stepan Stepanovich (Aleksanteri Akseli) born 1893, Finland;
emigrated from Brooklyn, New York, in 1932; foreman at printing house;
executed 10 February 1938.

Hendriksson, Juho Matveevich (Matti) born 1886, Finland; emigrated from
the USA in 1932; metal worker; executed 10 February 1938.

Henell, Benjamin Jakovlevich (Jaakko) born 1905, Finland; emigrated from
the USA in 1932; culture worker, Kiestinki house of culture; executed 9
January 1938.

Herrala, Erkki Antonovich born 1896, Finland; emigrated from Spencer,
New York, in 1932; carpenter, Solomennoye power plant; executed 3 April
1938.

Hill, (Maki) Helen Oskarovna born 1917, Minnesota; emigrated from the
USA in 1932; logging dispatcher; executed 22 April 1938.

Hill (Mäki), Oskar Henrikovich born 1888, Finland; emigrated from
Minnesota in 1931; logger; executed 15 May 1938.

Hill, Otto Matveevich (Matti) born 1890, Finland; emigrated from the USA
in 1933; logger; executed 21 April 1938.

Hiltunen, Jaakko Ivanovich (Juho) born 1881, Finland; emigrated from the
USA in 1922 to Knosas fishing commune; executed 21 January 1938.

Honkanen, William Johannesvich born 1903, St. Petersburg, Russia;
emigrated from the USA in 1932; logger and secretary of local Soviet
Communist Party unit; executed 9 January 1938.

Huuki, Karl (Kalle) Karlovich born 1898, Finland; emigrated from Ohio in
1931; carpenter; executed 28 December 1938.

Huttunen, David Simovich born 1884, Finland; emigrated from the USA in
1922; worker, Suontale brick factory; executed 21 April 1938.

Isaakson, Tuomas Tuomasovich born 1894, Rock Springs, Wyoming; emigrated
from Canada in 1931; mechanic; executed 3 April 1938.

Jääskeläinen, Juho Davidovich born 1884, Finland; emigrated from
Gardner, Massachusetts, in 1934; logger; executed 8 May 1938.

Jarvenpaa, Eero Matvejevich (Matti) born 1905, Finland; emigrated from
the USA in 1931; sawmill worker; executed 20 January 1938.

Jokela, Johan Erikovitsh born 1883, Finland; emigrated from the USA in
1931; school carpenter; executed 20 January 1938.

Jormalainen, Alpo Heikkivich born 1910, Finland; emigrated from the USA
in 1932; post office driver; executed 20 January 1938.

Kaartinen, Eino Anttivich born 1912, Finland; emigrated from the USA in
1932; logger; executed 21 April 1938.

Kaartinen, Mathew Alfredovich born 1907, Ironwood, Michigan; emigrated
from the USA in 1931; mechanic; executed 28 December 1937.

Kaipainen, Johan Ivanovitsh (Juho) born 1887, Finland; emigrated from
the USA in 1932; deputy director of construction agency; executed 21
January 1938.

Kajander, Niilo Davidovich born 1901, Finland; emigrated from the USA in
1932; logger; executed 22 April 1938.

Kallio, Arvid Valentinovich born 1888, Finland; emigrated from the USA
in 1932; logger; executed 11 February 1938.

Kallio, Julius Andreevich (Antti) born 1891, Finland; emigrated from the
USA in 1931; actor, Petrozavodsk national theater; executed 10 February
1938.

Kangas, Matti Erikovich born 1904, Finland; emigrated from the USA in
1931; logger; executed 3 April 1938.

Karlson, Karl Augustovich born 1894, Finland; emigrated from the USA in
1932; turner for Sunastroi; executed 8 May 1938.

Karlstedt, Viktor Maurivich born 1892, Finland; emigrated from the USA
in 1931; driver; executed 10 February 1938.

Kemppainen, Valdemar Ivanovich (Juho) born 1883, Finland; emigrated from
the USA in 1931; driver; executed 20 January 1938.

Ketola, Eino Vilhovich born 1891, Finland; emigrated from the USA in
1932; carpenter in cooperative for the disabled; executed 10 February
1938.

Kivistö, Karl Ivanovich (Juho) born 1896, Finland; emigrated from the
USA in 1931; carpenter; executed 6 March 1938.

Koivu, Onni Aleksandrovich born 1914, USA; emigrated from the USA in
1931; tractor driver; executed January 20, 1938.

Koivulehto (Kinnunen), Otto Nikolaevich born 1894, Finland; emigrated
from Aurora, Minnesota, in 1932; sawfitter, Santala tractor station;
executed 21 January 1938.

Koivuluoma, Jaakko Ionovitsh (Johan, Joonas?) born 1897, Finland;
emigrated from Maine in 1931; logger; executed 22 April 1938.

Korpi, Arvo Ivanovich (Juho) born 1892, Finland; emigrated from the USA
in 1931; driver; executed 20 January 1938.

Korpi, Jaakko Ionosovich (Joonas) born 1898, Finland; emigrated from the
USA in 1932; logger; executed 3 April 1938.

Korpi, Oskar Aleksandrovich born 1891, Finland; emigrated from Quincy,
Massachusetts, in 1932; mechanic; executed 20 January 1938.

Kortes (Lähdeskorpi), Viktor Maurivich born 1892, Finland; emigrated
from Michigan in 1931; driver, construction company; executed 10
February 1938.

Koskelainen, Aleksandr Ivanovich (Juho) born 1899, Finland; emigrated
from Aberdeen, Washington, in 1928; foreman and mechanic; executed 11
February 1938.

Koski, Kalle Villevich born 1888, Finland; emigrated from the USA in
1934; logger; executed 10 February 1938.

Kuusela, (Kakkonen)Antti Jakovlevich (Jaakko) born 1893, Finland;
emigrated from the USA in 1932; logger, Padozero-Vidany tractor station;
executed 6 March 1938.

Laakso, Toivo Osipovich (Jooseppi) born 1892, Finland; emigrated from
the USA in 1932; factory worker; executed 21 April 1938.

Laakso, Uuno (Niva Einari) Ionovich (Joonas) born 1900, Finland;
emigrated from Frederick, South Dakota, in

1931; member of the Soviet Communist Party (VKP/b) and taught Communist
Party history at party school, Petrozavodsk; executed 11 February 1938.

Laine, Vilho Enoch Vilgemovitsh born 1901, Finland; emigrated from
Pennsylvania in 1933; instructor at lumbering site; executed 20 January
1938.

Laitinen, Martti Alfredovich born 1902, Finland; emigrated from the USA
in 1931; painter at hospital; executed 9 January 1938.

Laukkanen, Antti Albinovich born 1891, Finland; emigrated from Rock,
Michigan, in 1932; carpenter; executed 5 March 1938.

Lehto, Väinö born 1904, Finland; emigrated from Detroit, Michigan, in
1932; electrician at Solomennoye hydropower station; executed 3 April
1938.

Lehtola, Vaino Andreevich (Antti) born 1912, Finland; emigrated from the
USA in 1932; logger; executed 28 April 1938.

Leinonen, Vilho Matveevich (Matti) born 1891, Finland; emigrated from
the USA in 1932; sawmill worker; executed 11 January 1938.

Leivo, Hugo Germanovich (Herman) born 1888, Finland; emigrated from the
USA in 1931; road builder; executed 3 April 1938.

Levanen, Abel Aleksandrovich born 1883, Finland; emigrated from Hancock,
Michigan, in 1931; metal worker, Kondopoga paper mill; executed 28 April
1938.

Lindkvist, Otto Gustavovich born 1887, Finland; emigrated from
Massachusetts in 1931; worker, Uhtua machine and tractor station;
executed 5 March 1938.

Lumio, Toivo Davidovich born 1886, Finland; emigrated from the USA in
1932; painter for Karelstroi; executed 3 April 1938.

Luoma, Lauri Ludvig Mihailovich (Mikko) born 1895, Finland; emigrated
 from the USA in 1931; foreman for Karelstroi; executed 6 March 1938.

Maki, Juho Matveevich (Matti) born 1879, Finland; emigrated from
Pennsylvania in 1932; mechanic, Vilga machine station; executed 11
February 1938.

Maki, Walter Walterovich born 1907, Minnesota; emigrated from the USA in
1931; carpenter; executed 15 May 1938.

Maki, George (Yrjo) Karpovich born 1888, Finland; emigrated from the USA
in 1934; logger; executed 22 April 1938.

Makkonen, Karl Ivanovich (Juho) born 1899, Finland; emigrated from the
USA in 1932; logger; executed 6 March 1938.

Mantyla, Toivo Mihailovich (Mikko) born 1911, Finland; emigrated from
Gardner, Massachusetts, in 1932; tractor driver, electrician; executed 8
May 1938.

Matson, Eino Walfredovich born 1909, Finland; emigrated from Queen
Village, Illinois, in 1931; plumber; executed 11 February 1938.

Matson, Henry (Heikki) Henrikovich born 1891, Finland; emigrated from
Massachusetts in 1932; metal worker, Central Repair Works; executed 8
 May 1938.

Merilä, Leo (Leonard) Stepanovich (Teppo) born 1886, Finland; emigrated
from Grand Rapids, Michigan, in 1931; carpenter; executed 20 January 1938.

Moisio, Jaakko Ioganovich (Johannes) born 1877, Finland; emigrated from
the USA in 1931; carpenter; executed 6 March 1938.

Multimäki, Ivan Ivanovich (Johan Juhovich) born 1880, Finland; emigrated
from Rhode Island in 1932; logger; executed 22 April 1938.

Myllari, Otto Karlovich born 1898, Finland; emigrated from Ohio in 1932;
sawfitter; executed 6 March 1938.

Nahkala Juho Fedorovich (Heikki) born 1884, Finland; emigrated from the
USA in 1931; metal worker at a paper mill; executed 22 April 1938.

Nelson (Poukkula), Enoch Jakovlevich (Jaakko) born 1897, San Francisco,
California; emigrated from the USA in 1921;member of the Soviet
Communist Party (VKP/b); director of industrial enterprise, Uhtua;
executed 5 March 1938.

Niemi, Andrei Ioganovitsh (Antti Johannesovich) born 1886, Finland;
emigrated from New York in 1931; carpenter, city hall, Petrozavodsk;
executed 6 March 1938.

Nikander, Svante Gustavovich, Korila (Karila?) born 1882, Finland;
emigrated from the USA in 1931; logger, Vilga machine station; executed
10 February 1938.

Niva, Emil Nikodimusovich (Nikodemus) born 1882, Finland; emigrated from
the USA in 1931; carpenter; executed 11 February 1938.

Oinonen, Eino Ottovich born 1906, Finland; emigrated from the USA in
1932; tinsmith; executed 10 February 1938.

Oja, Aleksi Viktorovich born 1892, Finland; emigrated from Minnesota in
1931; metal worker; executed 3 April 1938.

Oksanen-Porvali, Anna Mihailovna (Mikko) born 1897, Finland; emigrated
from Gardner, Massachusetts, in 1932; housewife, Petrozavodsk; executed
21 April 1938.

Olkinuora, Armas Andreevich (Antti) born 1902, Finland; emigrated from
the USA in 1931; mechanic; executed 11 February 1938.

Paakkonen, Matti Petrovich (Pekka) born 1898, Finland; emigrated from
the USA in 1930; handicraft worker, Kustprommetal cooperative; executed
11 February 1938.

Paju, Emil Matveevich (Matti) born 1878, Finland; emigrated from
Cleveland, Ohio, in 1931; stove/fireplace mason; executed 10 February
1938.

Paju, Viktor Emilevich born 1908, Finland; emigrated from the USA in
1931; worker at ink-making shop; executed 20 January 1938.

Peltonen, Kaarlo Kaarlovich born 1886, Finland; emigrated from Astoria,
Oregon, in 1930; blacksmith; executed 28 April 1938.

Pesonen, Feliks Emelianovitsh (Emil) born 1895, Finland; emigrated from
New York in 1931; club manager, Lososina lumbering site; executed 10
February 1938.

Pietilä, Alfred Ivanovich born 1911, Washington State; emigrated from
Aberdeen, Washington, in 1923 to "Sower" commune; then driver,
Petrozavodsk; executed 6 March 1938.

Pyykkö, Mihail Matveevich (Mikko Mattivich) born 1884, Finland;
emigrated from the USA in 1931; carpenter; executed 10 February 1938.

Rantala, Toivo Isakovich born 1904, Finland; emigrated from Oregon in
1932; worker at Onega tractor factory; executed 3 April 1938.

Rantaniemi, Toivo Ivanovich (Juho) born 1906, Finland; emigrated from
the USA in 1934; carpenter; executed 3 April 1938.

Rautio, Antti Uunovich born 1909, Finland; emigrated from the USA in
1931; driver, Vilga machine station; executed 11 February 1938.

Ruuskanen, Uuno Pavlovich (Paavo) born 1908, Finland; emigrated from
Minnesota in 1931; driver; executed 9 January 1938.

Saarenpaa, Solomon Mihailovich (Mikko) born 1881, Finland; emigrated
from Marshfield, Oregon, in 1932; mechanic; executed 9 January 1938.

Saastamoinen, Robert Robertovich born 1888, Finland; emigrated from
Ishpeming, Michigan, in 1933; logger; executed 10 January 1938.

Salmi, Kalle Rihardovich born 1897, Finland; emigrated from Chicago,
Illinois, in 1931; logger; executed 21 January 1938.

Salminen, Eino Gustavovich (Kustaa) born 1906, Finland; emigrated from
the USA in 1931; actor, Uhtua National Theater; executed 22 April 1938.

Salminen, Eino Karlovitsh born 1901, Finland; emigrated from Chicago,
Illinois, in 1931; mechanic; executed 20 January 1938.

Salminen, Richard Nikolaevich born 1883, Finland; emigrated from New
York in 1930; school janitor; executed 11 February 1938.

Salo, Simo Jegorovich (Yrjo) born 1890 Finland; emigrated from the USA
in 1931; foreman for Karelstroi; executed 6 March 1938.

Salo, Yrjo Petrovich (Pekka) born 1898, Finland; emigrated from
Ishpeming, Michigan, in 1932; carpenter, Vilga machine station; executed
11 February 1938.

Salonen, Toivo Gustavovich (Kustaa) born 1904, Finland; emigrated from
the USA in 1931; set painter at Uhtua National Theater; executed 21
January 1938.

Saviniemi, Elis Fedorovich (Heikki) born 1898, Finland; emigrated from
the USA in 1931; logger; executed 8 May 1938.

Silvan, Rafael Vainovich born 1916, New York; emigrated from the USA in
1933; mechanic, car repair shop; executed 5 March 1938.

Siren (Kari), John Ioganovich (Johan) born 1915, Duluth, Minnesota;
emigrated from the USA in 1932; paper mill electrician; executed 11
February 1938.

Solkela, Severi (Seth) Yakovlevich (Jaakko) born 1902, Chassel,
Michigan; emigrated from the USA in 1930; accordian player, Kiestenga
club; executed 9 January 1938.

Tabell, Isaak Eino Isaakovich born 1904, Finland; emigrated from the USA
in 1932; borer, Samoilovich mine; executed 21 January 1938.

Tamminen, Toivo Fritovich (Frithof) born 1887, Finland; emigrated from
the USA (or Canada, records unclear) in 1931; construction worker;
executed 6 March 1938.

Tenhunen, Matti Petrovich (Pekka) born 1883, Finland; emigrated from the
USA in 1931; head of the Karelian Council of People’s Comissariats Labor
Department; publishing house director; executed 28 December 1937.

Terhonen, Johan Martynovich (Martin) born 1903, Finland; emigrated from
the USA in 1932; auto mechanic, Lososina transport center; executed 11
February 1938.

Tolonen, Eino Venjaminovich (Benjamin) born 1888, Finland; emigrated
from Detroit, Michigan, in 1931; mason; executed 28 April 1938.

Tuomainen, Aksel Juhovich born 1895, Finland; emigrated from the USA in
1932; carpenter; executed 28 December 1937.

Tuominen, Yrjo (Georg) Viktorovitsh born 1896, Finland; emigrated from
the USA in 1932; director, railroad tie factory; executed 28 December
1937.

Tuominen, Väinö Fedorovich (Heikki) born 1904, Finland; emigrated from
the USA in 1931; driver; executed 10 February 1938.

Turunen, Toivo Ottovich born 1912, Finland; emigrated from the USA in
1931; painter, city health department; Petrozavodsk; executed 20 January
 1938.

Unkuri (Bergman), Iohan Nikolaevich born 1891, Finland; emigrated from
Cleveland, Ohio, in 1930; mechanic and carpenter; executed 3 April 1938.

Uutela, Emil Matveevitsh (Matti) born 1890, Finland; emigrated from
Clinton, Massachusetts, in 1932; blacksmith, Vilga machine station;
executed 10 February 1938.

Vaananen, Kaarlo Ivanovich (Juho) born 1905, Finland; emigrated from the
USA in 1933; worker, Santala tractor station; executed 3 April 1938.

Vahakari, Oskar Hannesovich born 1900, Finland; emigrated from the USA
in 1931; logger, Vilga machine station; executed 28 December 1937.

Wallen, August Martynovich (Martti) born 1878, Finland; emigrated from
the USA in 1930; carpenter; executed 10 February 1938.

Viger, Gabriel Isaakovich born 1885, Finland; emigrated from the USA in
1932; blacksmith, Vilga machine station; executed 10 February 1938.

Viitanen, Yrjo Karlovitch born 1899, Finland; emigrated from the USA in
1932; logger, Santala tractor station; executed 6 March 1938.

Vuori, Jaakko Viktorovich born 1912, Barry, Vermont; emigrated from the
USA in 1932; tractor driver, Avneporog; executed 9 January 1938.

Ylitalo, Jaakko Gustavovich (Kustaa) born 1898, Finland; emigrated from
the USA in 1926 to "Sower" commune, Rostov oblast, from there to
Karelia; stove mason, state farm N 2; executed 10 February 1938.

This list is based on Mayme Sevander’s research in archives in
Petrozavodsk, Russia as well as the work of Jukka Pietilainen and Carl
Ross on similar list from the Finnish language journal _Carelia_ (issues
2-9, 1998) published in Petrozavodsk. The names in KGB archives are in
Russian and follow Russian naming conventions which include patronymics.
The latter, however, were not customary among North American Finns. To
preserve the authenticity of KGB documents the Russian patronymics have
been preserved, while the Finnish/English spelling is given in
parentheses. Russian patronymics have double markers: OVA/EVA,
indicating the possessive case; and ICH -- masculine, NA -- feminine.
Thus, Ivanovich -- son of Ivan; Ivanovna -- daughter of Ivan. In
addition to KGB and other archival records, Sevander made use of Yuri
Dmitriev, _Mesto Rasstrela Sandarmokh_ [Sandarmokh Is Where They Were
Executed] (Petrozavodsk [Russia], 1999); Eila Lahti-Argutina, _Olimme
Joukko Vieras Vaan_ [We Were Just a Bunch of Strangers] (Turku
[Finland]: Siirtolaisuusinstituutti, 2001) and Mayme Sevander,
_Vaeltajat_ [Wanderers]

This list can be found as an appendix to Haynes and Klehr’s _In Denial:
Historians, Communism and Espionage_.

John Earl Haynes
johnearlhaynes@comcast.net